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Comparative Grammar 比較文法: 與其他語言對比

Noun Declension

English
Greek
Latin
German
French
Hebrew
Spanish

English

English

Greek

  Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

First (a, h)

-hV , (p.43, L10)

-aV , (p.43, L10)

-h (p.39, L8),

-a (p.41, L9)

 

Second (o)

-oV , (p.30, L5)

-oV , (p. 196)

-on (p.37, L7)

Third (con, i, u)

(various) p.115, L28

p.115, L28

p.118, L29

Latin

  Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

First (a) –ae

-a , (p.25, L1)

-a , (p.25, L1) f

 

Second (o) –i

-us, -er (p.33, L3)

 

-um (p.33, L3)

Third (-ium, gen.pl.)

(various) p.48 L7

(various) p.48 L7

 

Fourth (-us, gen.)

-us (p.63, L11)

-us (p.63, L11)

-u (p.63, L11)

Fifth (-ei, gen.)

-es (p.68, L12)

-es (p.68, L12)

 

German (Deutsche)

Reference: Gewehr, Wolf and von Schmidt Wolff A. German Review & Readings (New York: Rinehart and Winston, 1973).

  Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Strong

Gen. s. –es, -s

–es added to monosyllabic, ending in sibilants (s, b, x, z, tz)

Dative s. Optional –e

Dative pl. add –n except those ending in –s or -n

Nom. pl. no ending or ends in –e, -er, -s (frequently the stem vowel is umlauted)

None,  except: die Mutter (mother), die Tochter (daughter)

Gen. s. –es, -s

–es added to monosyllabic, ending in sibilants (s, b, x, z, tz)

Dative s. Optional –e

Dative pl. add –n except those ending in –s or -n

Nom. pl. no ending or ends in –e, -er, -s (frequently the stem vowel is umlauted)

Weak

Always ends in –en, -n (except Nom. s.)

Always ends in –en, -n (except Nom. s.)

Noun with the suffixes: -ei, -ion, -heit, -keit, -schaft, -tät & -ung, add –en in the plural.

Noun with suffix –ie, add –n in the plural.

None

Mixed

Gen. s. -es, -s

Pl. -en, -n

None

Gen. s. -es, -s

Pl. -en, -n

Irregular

der Herr, gentleman

  das Herz, heart

Irregular nouns: der Nachbar, neighbor

French (Francise)

French

Spanish (Espanol)

Spanish

Hebrew (one of Semitic)

Hebrew