Shift of mutes from Indo-European languages to Germanic languages

(Focus on Greek to English)

Note: the Greek Font is SP Ionic. (right-click and choose "save as") Save the fonts under C:\windows\fonts\

Shift : Voiced to Voiceless to Fricative to Voiced

Voiced

Voiceless

Fricative

Voiced

b (b)

p (p)

f  (f)

f -> b

d (d)

t (t)

th (q)

q -> d

g (g)

k (k)

h /ch (x)

x -> g

The following examples are provided in Bruce M. Metzger, Lexical Aids for Students of New Testament Greek, pp. 77-78.

Extra information added is from Robert Lord, Comparative Linguists, p.88.


Examples:

Voiced

Voiceless

Voiced

Voiceless

Voiced

Voiceless

b (b)

p (p)

d (d)

t (t)

g (g)

k (k)

bu/rsa

a hide: purse

dru~j

oak: tree

ge/noj

race: kin

ku/boj

loin: hip

du/o

two: two

(dual)

go/nu

Latin: genu

Gothic: kniu

O.E. : kneo

Eng: knee

   

o)do/nt-

tooth: tooth

ginw/skw

know: know

   

(stem)

 

(root gnw-)

 

 

Voiceless

Fricative

Voiceless

Fricative

Voiceless

Fricative

p (p)

f  (f)

t (t)

th (q)

k (k)

h / kh (x)

path/r

father

trei~j

three

kardi/a

heart /cardi-

plhgh/

blow: flog

o)dou/j

tooth: tooth

karpo/j

fruit: harvest

polu/j

much: full

o)do/nt-

 

ku/wn

dog: hound

pu~r

fire

(stem)

 

(stem kun-)

 

 

Fricative

Voiced

Fricative

Voiced

Fricative

Voiced

f  (f)

f -> b

th (q)

q -> d

h /ch (x)

x -> g

fe/rw

I bear: bear

quga/thr

daughter

o)xe/w

I uphold, carry, ride: weigh

fra/thr

a member of a brotherhood: brother

qu/ra

door

xh/n

dat. pl. xhsi/

goose

   

me/qu

wine: mead

xo/rtoj

Enclosure, grass:

   

ti/qhmi

I put, place:

 

garden

   

(stem qe-)

do

German:

Garten