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Verbs: TMV (Tense Mood gives bad Voice.) or Timely Music Video

E.g. Present Indicative Active

Note: The following is in intermediate grammar.

Tense

Reference:

  1. Richard A. Young Intermediate NT Greek
  2. Dana & Mantey Greek Grammar
  3. Robertson Greek Grammar
  4. Greek Grammar

Please note that the general approach suggests that the division is continuous (Present, Imperfect), punctiliar (aorist) and Stative/Perfective (perfective, pluperfect).

Time (Aspect)\

Nature (Aktionsart)

Past
Present
Future
Continuous      
Continuous-Point      
Point      

The following classification is made by me. Normally, the aspect does not include the "Continuous-point" which I added to show the special aspect.

Putting into a certain classification may be somewhat artibratary.

Tense Locations: Non-Perfective Tenses

( ) is the number of usages.

 

Time (Aspect)\

Nature (Aktionsart)

Past
Present
Future
Continuous
2 (3)
3 (4)
3
Continuous-Point
2 (4)
2 (5)
0
Point
1
2
3 (6)

 

Tense Comparison

 

Past

Present

Future

Continuous : Present

Durative à

Progressive/Descriptive (present continuous)

------ Gnomic

  • Completely Futuristic
  • Mostly Futuristic (Ingressive-Futuristic) present to Future

Continuous : Imperfect

Lifestyle (Customary, General) Imperfect [used to, as a lifestyle]

Descriptive (past continuous)

 

Futuristic

Continuous : Aorist

 

------ Gnomic

 

Continuous : Future

  Gnomic

Progressive

 

     

Continuous-point : Present

 

...Iterative

à Existing Results

 

Continuous-point : Imperfect

à Ingressive (Inchoative, Inceptive) = began doing 

...Iterative [kept on]

à Conative (Voluntative, Tendential) wanted to, could almost

--à Tendential (trying to)

  

Continuous-point : Aorist

à Ingressive (Inceptive, Inchoative) [began to]

() Constative (Complexive, Punctiliar, Comprehensive, Global)

àConsummative (Culminative, Ecbatic, Effective)

Epistolary (?) [present perfect]  

Continuous-point : Future

     

 

     

Point : Present

Historical/Dramatic (narrative)

() Performative (utter)

Instantaneous (Aorist, Punctiliar) Present

Tendential (stating point?) trying to

Point : Imperfect

     

Point : Aorist

 

Immediate Past (Dramatic) [just now, has just happened]

Proleptic (Futuristic)

 

Point : Future

   

Predictive

Imperatival

Deliberative (?)

Present

 

Past

Present

Future

Continuous : Present

Durative à

Progressive/Descriptive (present continuous)

------ Gnomic

  • Completely Futuristic
  • Mostly Futuristic (Ingressive-Futuristic) present to Future

Continuous-point

 

...Iterative

à Existing Results

 

Point

Historical/Dramatic (narrative)

() Performative (utter)

Instantaneous (Aorist, Punctiliar) Present

Tendential (stating point?) trying to

Present Retained in Indirect Discourse

Imperfect

 

Past

Present

Future

Continuous

Lifestyle (Customary, General) Imperfect [used to, as a lifestyle]

Descriptive (past continuous)

 

Futuristic

Continuous-point  

à Ingressive (Inchoative, Inceptive) = began doing 

...Iterative [kept on]

à Conative (Voluntative, Tendential) wanted to, could almost

--à Tendential (trying to)

  

Point

     

Imperfect Retained in Indirect Discourse

Future

 

Past

Present

Future

Continuous

  Gnomic

Progressive

Continuous-point

     

Point

   

Predictive

Imperatival

Deliberative (?)

Aorist

 

Past

Present

Future

Continuous

 

------ Gnomic

 

Continuous-point

à Ingressive (Inceptive, Inchoative) [began to]

() Constative (Complexive, Punctiliar, Comprehensive, Global)

àConsummative (Culminative, Ecbatic, Effective)

Epistolary (?) [present perfect]  

Point

 

Immediate Past (Dramatic) [just now, has just happened]

Proleptic (Futuristic)

 

 

Perfective Tenses Comparison


Perfect (Stative)

 

Past

Present

Future

 

     

Continuous : Perfect

 

------ Gnomic

 

Continuous : Pluperfect

     

 

     

Continuous-point : Perfect

à] Consummative

...Iterative

àIntensive

 

Continuous-point : Pluperfect

à] Consummative

...Iterative

àIntensive

 

 

     

Point : Perfect

Dramatic

Present State

 

Point : Pluperfect

Past State

   

Perfect (Stative)

 

Past

Present

Future

Continuous

 

------ Gnomic

 

Continuous-point

à] Consummative

...Iterative

àIntensive

 

Point

Dramatic

Present State

 

PluPerfect (Stative)

 

Past

Present

Future

Continuous

     

Continuous-point

à] Consummative

...Iterative

àIntensive

 

Point

Past State

   

Future Perfect

 

Past

Present

Future

Continuous

     

Continuous-point

     

Point

     

This is a rarely used tense.