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Palestinian Political and Religious Movements in Jesus' times

By Philip Yim Kwok Hung

Through these reconstructed models from contemporary movements we gain more insights on this prophetic model. I would defer detailed analysis of these movements in the discussion on comparisons on the contemporary political and religious movements (i.e. I. B. 4.)

 

 

4. Presentation of contemporary Palestinian Political and Religious Movements.

4. Presentation of contemporary Palestinian Political and Religious Movements.

When comparing these reconstructed model from contemporary movements we gain more insights on this prophetic model. I would defe?���������

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In this section, I will try to present some Palestinian political and religious movements; so that we can use them as discussion materials in later parts of this thesis. There are many of them, I will classify them in the following fashion:

a. Contemporary Social movements:

i. social banditry (related to many 'kings')

ii. prophetic movements

iii general peasant uprisings (without kings or prophets as leaders)

iv. amorphous spontaneous urban protests and riots.

v. messianic movements (includes a religio-political consciousness)

Here I will list some examples in urban protests, prophetic movements and messianic movements.

b. Two Illustrating examples of protest (i.e. "a. iv" type)

i. Jerusalem crowd's protest to Archelaus in 4 B.C.E.

ii. Crowd's protest of a provocative action by a Roman soldier under Cumanus (governor, 48-52 C.E.)

features:

1) out of control: it lasts for several days.

2) its climax is during the Passover festival.

some observations:

for 4 B.C.E.

1) Jerusalem contains only two "classes": the ruling class and the populace. (cf. a Greek city)

2) Symbiotic relationship between client king or high-priestly establishment and the bulk of the populace. Roman governors take the protest seriously, but are less sensitive to the appeal of the people.

3) The urban poor are the starters, who is joined by the Passover pilgrims.

4) The concern of the crowd may be basic economic and political grievances. e.g. yearly payment, release prisoners, and taxes levied upon public purchases.

5) The martyrdom of the revered teachers and of their students reflect Herodian tyranny. Deep resentment against Herod's rule is significant.

6) They produced their leaders who continued to agitate the crowd.

7) This event become a precursor of later riots.

for Cumanus

1) Near reason: one soldier uncovered and exhibited his genitals to the multitude. This act is interpreted by the multitude as a blasphemy against God. (Ant. 20.108)

2) Far reason:

severe drought and famine of the late 40s.

celebrating their forefathers' liberation, while they are under Roman rule.

3) The crowd made no challenge to the system, but to its abuses exemplified in tyranny or insult.

4) The crowd acted nonviolently; until provoked by the troops sent by the Roman governor.

Horsley Popular Messianic Movements p.494.

Horsley Jesus, p.93.

Horsley Jesus, pp.93-99.

Horsley Popular Messianic Movements p.494.

Horsley Jesus, p.93.

Horsley Jesus, pp.93-99.

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