My theory and practice of Counseling

Professor : Dr. Kenneth Dale

Student : Philip Yim Kwok Hung (嚴國洪)

Date : 8th July, 1993.

New revision date: 1995513"7 Areas Theory"

I. My theory of Counseling: on human nature

A. Man is consisted of three parts:

Spirit, Mind, and Body; but they are mutually related. "7 areas model" is described as follows:

Spirit() Mind() Body(身体)

Spirit : sp. problem superego /ego physiological problem -->sp. life

Mind : ------------- mental illness id (另心理可以治病)

Body : ------------- --------------- physical disease

N.B.: In one area, they are integrated together as a unit. It may be situated at the brain.

B. Man is developed through stages.

1. In each stage, there are some basic tasks to complete. However, very few people can achieve "completely." Therefore counseling is needed by everyone, including the healthy people, to face their developmental problems.

2. Socialization & Psychological Fulfillment are some important factors.

3. Tasks unfulfilled in previous stages will affect the later stages, but influence varies; some may be almost "fatal," some may be ignored. Absolute equilibrium is impossible, while relatively "good" equilibrium is pursued.

4. Holistic growth in all the 7 areas (see I. A.) is needed especially the corresponding spiritual aspects of psychological needs. (cf. Maslow's triangle.) Man's choice is determined by : mental, emotional, social, physical, and spiritual factors.

II. My practice of Counseling

A. Relation building & Information gathering:

B. Diagnosis:

C. Solving the problem together with the client:

D. Re-defining the problem: New insights reveal the real problem and restrictions reveal "bestt" possible equilibrium.

E. Working through: (a co-counselor may be needed.)

F. Closing the counseling sessions / Referral.

G. Follow-up

A. Relation building & Information gathering:

1. The client presents his/her problem: present issue & past history.

a. His present burning issue:

b. His individual experience:

i) The influence of special related past experience: e.g. trauma. ii) Unconsciousness affects a man's life. (repetition of pattern)

iii) Some are unchangeable, but adjustable, e.g. temperament.

iv) Respect and observe his feeling. (Why he has this feeling?)

c. His family experience: (using Genogram)

Family constellation affects one's personality, but not final or unchangeable. Family interaction will affect the client's attitude.

d. Other experience:

i) His relationship with friends, classmates, spouse, children, colleague neighbor and relatives, etc. (Concentric circle of relationship)

ii) Other special relationship: e.g. extra-marital affair, corruption, spiritual encounter, etc.

2. Building Client-Counselor relationship:

a. Respect the client's self-determination; notice his individualization.

b. Believe that the man can change his present situation despite his past (though changes may be favorable in some cases).

c. Try to be as neutral as possible. (uncondemning Vs ethical problem)

d. Empathy, acceptance, congruence, confidentiality and counselor's control of his own emotional response are also important.

B. Diagnosis:

Find the connection of his problems. (related to 7 areas).

C. Solving the problem together with the client:

Solve the emergent and important problem. (E.g., a man in debts needs to learn how to handle money.) Let him find out the problems and make an action plan for this.

D. Re-defining the problem: New insights reveal the real problem and restrictions reveal "best" possible equilibrium.

E. Working through: (a co-counselor may be needed.)

"A-B-C-S" Approach

F. Closing the counseling sessions / Referral.

G. Follow-up