OLD TESTAMENT THEOLOGY
-purpose of OT Theology
-what OT Theology can and should include ?
Diachronic: von Rad ---> tradition history.
Systematic: Eichrodt ---> covenant // Westermann : relationship // Zimmerli : of Yahweh.
Synchronic: B Childs ---> canonical (final text in Hebrew Bible)
Diachronic 1. show the growing process. 1. hypothetical 2. process >> canon ?
Systematic 1. main themes is clarified. 1. too general answer 2. ignore historical background 3. ancient Israel doesn't have this kind of theology.
History of OT Theology
1) OT as promise/prophecy: 1 Cor 15:3b-5 "accordance with scriptures"
2) OT as law: "law" = OT (Jn 10:34) ; typology + allegory
OT interpreted by Christ Event + some material are problematic for NT writers. [p.4]
-early church (positive attitude but also Marcion)
3) Struggle in the early church.
Marcion : gnostic attitude to creation, reject OT's God. [NT= Luke + some Pauline letters]
Origen (allegory) Vs Antioch (literal)
Rashi (11th C) ---> Nicholas of Lyra (-1349) ---> Luther : Literal meaning.
historical consciousness. interest in biblical languages.
Sola Scriptura (1519): Christ is the centre of the Bible (norma normans)
-rise of historical research
1787 Johann Philip Gabler OT Vs NT
1792 G.L. Baurs ---> 1831 de Wette 1885 Wellhausen
1902 History of religion school --> Bible-Bablylon dispute: Biblical writers borrow & rewrite myths.
1930-60 "golden time" of OT Theology.
1933 Sellin 1933 W. Eichrodt (covenant)
1960s Gerhard von Rad
[Ref: Groves, Joseph W. Actualization and interpretation in the OT . SBL Disssertation Series 86. Atlanta: Scholars, 1987.]
Theological main streams in OT (history/development of OT faith):
-the result of OT Study
quite certain certain probably hypothetical
Pentateuch fragmentary P; D J dating of J; E? (=Js/Ds) Deut history ----- frag.; monarch->exilic editing process ----------
Prophetical bks fragmentary final bk from diff C. AIM's sayings ----------
Chronistic writ. ----- use Pent & D hist again 350-250 BC (400BC)
Wisdom liter. post-exilic/Gk. [uncertain : relationship of wisdom literature to the OT Theology]
Apocalyptic/Dan ---- Dan dated 167-4 BC Hellenistic/Seleucid
[partly unsolved is the tradition hist. background of apocalyptic movement.]
Content: only partly coherent & continuing. Gen 2:4b - Num 24:24. Ending of story (Josh-Judg)?
Theology: Cpfa Fwl
-Books of early prophets: AIM (Amos, Isaiah, Micah)
Message: Judgment on the Ruler, because the abused justice (oppression of poor), hence the cult is criticized (Am 5:4). Instruction: seek good & do justice (Am 5:14); then a better future will come. (Am 9:11-15)
Voc: Obey law (6:3) ---> love God, with all your Heart & soul (6:5) ---> since God leads you from the House of slavery (6:12); then don't follow other gods. (6:14).
The land which God gives you (4:40) ---> because he chooses you (4:37), then do right in the sight of God.(4:25). He has choosen the site. (12:5).
Theology: Centralization of the cult, since you are the People of God (4:37)[4+3=7].
Yahweh is the only God (6:4)of the Israelites, hence Obey law (6:5,13).
OT as theological unity
-theological centre of OT
No Centre: von Rad-- the actualization process of OT is the centre. (Vs Eichrodt: covenant )
Proposals: God (Hasel; Reventlow) ---> What kind of God ?
Monotheism: (Schmidt) ---> What kind of Monotheism ? 1st comm. is late development.
Relationship : Yahweh & Israel (Smend): dipolar centre(God, people); but it is dynamic!
Dialogue (or : meeting as revelation, including non-verbal commu. by Timo Veijola) (all fits this model except Ecclesiastes: no living dialogue with God. &
Apocalyptic: God's monologue.)
-OT as churchyard & part of x'n Bible
validity of OT & its relationship to NT