-purpose of OT Theology

-what OT Theology can and should include ?

Diachronic: von Rad ---> tradition history.

Systematic: Eichrodt ---> covenant // Westermann : relationship // Zimmerli : of Yahweh.

Synchronic: B Childs ---> canonical (final text in Hebrew Bible)

Strength Weakness

Diachronic 1. show the growing process. 1. hypothetical 2. process >> canon ?

Systematic 1. main themes is clarified. 1. too general answer 2. ignore historical background 3. ancient Israel doesn't have this kind of theology.

History of OT Theology

-NT use

1) OT as promise/prophecy: 1 Cor 15:3b-5 "accordance with scriptures"

2) OT as law: "law" = OT (Jn 10:34) ; typology + allegory

OT interpreted by Christ Event + some material are problematic for NT writers. [p.4]

-early church (positive attitude but also Marcion)

3) Struggle in the early church.

Marcion : gnostic attitude to creation, reject OT's God. [NT= Luke + some Pauline letters]

Origen (allegory) Vs Antioch (literal)


Rashi (11th C) ---> Nicholas of Lyra (-1349) ---> Luther : Literal meaning.

historical consciousness. interest in biblical languages.

Sola Scriptura (1519): Christ is the centre of the Bible (norma normans)

-rise of historical research

1787 Johann Philip Gabler OT Vs NT

1792 G.L. Baurs ---> 1831 de Wette 1885 Wellhausen

1902 History of religion school --> Bible-Bablylon dispute: Biblical writers borrow & rewrite myths.

1930-60 "golden time" of OT Theology.

1933 Sellin 1933 W. Eichrodt (covenant)

1960s Gerhard von Rad

[Ref: Groves, Joseph W. Actualization and interpretation in the OT . SBL Disssertation Series 86. Atlanta: Scholars, 1987.]

Theological main streams in OT (history/development of OT faith):

-the result of OT Study

quite certain certain probably hypothetical

Pentateuch fragmentary P; D J dating of J; E? (=Js/Ds) Deut history ----- frag.; monarch->exilic editing process ----------

Prophetical bks fragmentary final bk from diff C. AIM's sayings ----------

Chronistic writ. ----- use Pent & D hist again 350-250 BC (400BC)

Wisdom liter. post-exilic/Gk. [uncertain : relationship of wisdom literature to the OT Theology]

Prov: pre-exilic

Apocalyptic/Dan ---- Dan dated 167-4 BC Hellenistic/Seleucid

[partly unsolved is the tradition hist. background of apocalyptic movement.]


Content: only partly coherent & continuing. Gen 2:4b - Num 24:24. Ending of story (Josh-Judg)?

Theology: Cpfa Fwl

-Books of early prophets: AIM (Amos, Isaiah, Micah)

Message: Judgment on the Ruler, because the abused justice (oppression of poor), hence the cult is criticized (Am 5:4). Instruction: seek good & do justice (Am 5:14); then a better future will come. (Am 9:11-15)

-deuteronomistic theology

Voc: Obey law (6:3) ---> love God, with all your Heart & soul (6:5) ---> since God leads you from the House of slavery (6:12); then don't follow other gods. (6:14).

The land which God gives you (4:40) ---> because he chooses you (4:37), then do right in the sight of God.(4:25). He has choosen the site. (12:5).

Theology: Centralization of the cult, since you are the People of God (4:37)[4+3=7].

Yahweh is the only God (6:4)of the Israelites, hence Obey law (6:5,13).

-priestly tradition

-chronistic theology

-wisdom literature


OT as theological unity

-theological centre of OT

No Centre: von Rad-- the actualization process of OT is the centre. (Vs Eichrodt: covenant )

Proposals: God (Hasel; Reventlow) ---> What kind of God ?

Monotheism: (Schmidt) ---> What kind of Monotheism ? 1st comm. is late development.

Relationship : Yahweh & Israel (Smend): dipolar centre(God, people); but it is dynamic!

Dialogue (or : meeting as revelation, including non-verbal commu. by Timo Veijola) (all fits this model except Ecclesiastes: no living dialogue with God. &

Apocalyptic: God's monologue.)

-OT as churchyard & part of x'n Bible

validity of OT & its relationship to NT