��������������������������������������Introduction to Romans - The Issue of Contextualization

Thesis: God's word incarnated, therefore we must understand original situation.

The Situation and Genesis of Romans - A Necessary Reminder, with New moves in Recent Research

1.Author: Paul as a Jew, caused by Jesus, opposed by fellow Jews & x'ns.

Date and place of Romans: Corinth about 56/57AD [Acts 20,3]

2.Recipients: He wrote to the Gentiles about Gentile-Jews relationship.

Internal tensions: Jews Vs Gentile

External political context: expulsion of Jews (AD49 Claudius; Acts 18,2)

tax issue (AD 54 Nero; Rom 13,1.7)

3.Purpose: MAP : Missionary (Spain 15,18-28) Apologetic (1:16-17) Pastoral (Rom 16) 4.Literary Analysis: Universial perspective (every, all); major line of logic.

5.Coherence: a. Epistle (1,1-15 & 15,24-16,23) + treatise (1,16-15,23)

b. Ch.16 is original ?

c. lack of theological coherence.

6.Four main thems: Jews>Gk. [1,16];

diatribe style---> school context & avoiding boasting before God.(11,17-25)

God's Righteousnes & faithfulness; (1,17) "all"; faithfullness.


Main Structure - The Logic of the letter (cf Dunn 1988)

1,1 -17 Introduction and theme

1,18-11,36 Dogmatic part

1,18-3,20 Problem: men's unrighteouseness --> God's wrath

3,21-4,25 New action

5-8 Consequence: for individual

9-11 for Israel

12,1 -15,13 Ethical part

15,14-16,27 Conclusion

[Datailed outline in p.11]

Remarks: Diagram for Paul's life.

Justification in Romans

vv.1-7 Form and structure;

Function: tactic to show his good faith ; X'logical formula; Jews & Gentiles (v.5); his vocation.

vv.16-17 Righteousness of God

1) Genitive of possession (Subject): God's own righteousness, his quality as righteous.

2) Genitive of relation (Object): the righteousness that is valid before God.

3) Genitive of origin: the righteousness coming from God, with God as its source.


1) It is God's righteousness that makes men 'being justified' (by faith, 3,22.26)

2) Sanctification (hagiasmos; 6,19.22) is demonstrated by Christian life (6,4.10f)

Study on "Righteousness of God" (R.)

1. God revealed through X.(1,17) 2. Men rejected God' R. (10,3)

3. R. by faith (4,11) 4. R as power (5,21; 6)

Conclusion : God's acting R. ----> our R. before God.

R. as a gift received, by faith, and issuing in service.

R. = judgement + salvation in one act 0(ie. the Cross)

[L3] The argument (1,18-3,20)

1,18-4,25 Rightouseness through faith alone

1,18-3,20 the guilt of mankind: unR. --> God's wrath.

1,18-32: Gentile's sins : Gods's justice & glory & truth.

1,18 statement 1,19-20 Premise 1,21-31 Consequences 1,32 Result

Background: Gen2-3 & Stoic categories vv.19,23,28.

& Jewish Hellenistic polemics against idolatry vv.21,23f.

2,1-3-8: Jews' problems

3,9-20: All are guilty

Addressees: general theolgoical treatise (1,18). readers still unknown.

1,18-32 Thesis: the justice & glory & truth of God the creator

Form & Structure = Statement Premise Consequences Result [SPCR]

v.18 vv.19-20 vv.21-31 v.32


1.A deliberate echo of the story in Gen 2-3

2.Stoic categories: vv.19f, 23, 28.

3.Standard Jewish Hellenistic polemics


v.18 Reason: injustice & unrighteousness of men

Reaction: God's wrath

vv.19-20 God is not knowable in himself

vv.21-23 Against idols ---> sexual impurity (vv.24-25) ---> eg. homosexual (vv.26-27)

vv.28-32 Fifth repetition of 'not having God in mind' (vv.

'God gave them over to' & death

2,1-3,8 Jews also under the wrath of God

Jews -- people of the laws --> God's favor.

Paul ---laws as universal judgment standareds.

2,1-11 God's judgment is just: deeds, not words.

2,12-26 law


God is the Judge Legal terms:

God is Creator Creational Theolgoical Language (Rom 1,20-23 glory = Gen 1,26-30 image)

God gives sacrifice Cultic Language: expiation

He is acting Eschatological / Apocalyptical Language


Paul is against "works of the law" : the social and covenantal boundary markers of the Jews.

CDs : Circumcision, Dietary laws, Sabbath.


justification = righteousness granted or imputed.

God concerns the Jews only Vs God is the Lord of all men. (3,19f)

Ch.4 Abraham

By means of Jewish midrash Gen 15,6 supported by Ps 32,1f.

Central core 3,21-4,25 Chs. 5-8 individual salvation Chs. 9-11 Universal salvation history

Chs.12- practical consequences

3,24-25 expiation/ atonement (`ilasthrion)

1) mercy seat of the ark 2) sacrifice of atonement

3) sacrifice with which an angry deity was placated

L6: 5,1 -11 Therefore, since we.. (hope) 1 p. pl "we"

5,12-21 Adam & Christ 3 p. sing. Romans is really about Gen 2-3 and its restitution.

N.B. Ch.6-8 Christian application "we" Ch.7 "I".

Christian Life in Romans is both a gift (Justification) & a task.

L7: Chs. 5,12-8,23 key concepts : Sin uses Law to make Body under Flesh's control and causes Death.

indicative ---> imperative (Eschatological tension: in-principle ---> reality)

sin 6,1-11 6,12-23

law 7,1-6 7,7-25 law + sinful nature = Death // (Death) --> freedom (New life)

flesh 8,1-9 8,10-30

6, 1-11 Mystery Analogy : Baptized into His death & Baptized into Christ.

A ritual act of sacramental significance or

6,12-23 Slave Analogy: A free slave ---> serve God (12,1-2ff) Sin Vs Righteousness & God.

Justification (salvation , redemption) Christian life (with/in Christ)

Indicative (3 p. sing. narrative) Imperative (2 p. pl.)/self exhortation (1pl.)

7, 1-6 Marriage Analogy:

7,7-23 1)X'n Paul : Baptism in Ch.6

2)Pre-X'ns Paul : the Spirit in Ch.8 ---> Ch. 7 Paul has no HS.


The Law is useless?

The Law is God's, but exploited by sin (v.13).

The Law is a yardstick (general use for all men) and mirror (reveals us and drives us to Christ).

Thirdly, Directions for the inmost self (7,6.22.25) for X'ns. [the Scripture for x'ns in 2Tim 3:16]

L10: Gen 2-3 in Where?

Rom 1:18-32 ("For the wrath of God is revealed..." ) Corrupted

5:12-21 (Adam & Christ) equalled and superseded ('as with ...., so also with')

7: 7-13 ("That the law is sin?") the commandment (Gen2,17) and sin deliver me to death

8:18-30 ("...the glory that is to be revealed to us.") Climax

v.29 restored (to be conformed to the image of his Son.)

creation 1,20.25 8,20-22

futility 1,21 8,20

glorify 1,21 8,30

glory 1,23 8,18.21 [3,23]

image 1,23 8,29

bodies 1,24(degraded) 8,23 (redeemed)

The theme of of Chs.6-8 is God's image (eikon)- man, which is corrupted, and them restored.

Rom 8,1-17

1-8: 3p sing (it) exposition 9-11: 2p =personal address 12-17: 1p pl. (we) conclusion

18: 1p sing. 19-22: cosmic eschatological perspective (hope)

In the image / picture and glory of God / Christ:

1) Gen 1,26f "God says in our image" 2) Rom 1,23 glory of God 3) Rom 8,29 image of his Son

Rom. 9-11 God's plan for Israel

Thesis(Nygren): The righteousness by faith is not against the promises God's people and God's righteousness / salvation.

Presupposition: One way to salvation: Belief in Christ. For the Jew first and also to the Greek 1,16

3:9,28-30 4:16 10:12f

Argument: PaD Personal (9:1-3) Argument from Scripture Dialogue (9:14)

9,1-29 Israel's rejection & God's righteousness

9,30-10,21 Israel's rejection is their own responsibility

11,1-36 Israel's rejection is not total & not definitive

L12a: background of ch.12

1. OT (rabbinical hermeneutic)

2. Jesus (Early Ch. traditions = oral laws & rabbinical laws

3. Graeco-Roman philosophy & simple common sense eg. logic, justice, fairness.

/General revelation

12,1-2 responsible living is the X'ns worship.

L12b: 13,1-7 possible background: PR2 Bit

1) Pneumatic-enthusiastic attitude? (cf. Corinth )

2) Recent Zealotism in Rome (49AD)?

3) Recent political experiences in Corinth and Thessalonica?

4) Between Claudius taxation edict in 53 AD & Nero's tax reform (58AD)

5) Insoluble, timeless?

6) The insurrectionist Paul himself as the problem?

?������:��"��*���*��h����e*܅ρ*�*���*���W�������X���%Revision on Romans (taught by Rosaeg)Romans��Yim Kwok HungYim Kwok Hung���������