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新約 馬太福音 課程大綱 (連 查經資料) - updated on 2003-12-11

New Testament - Matthew course:

故事/襯々尷R法 (Narrative Criticism); 襯け鑑法

         
         
         

故事/襯々尷R法 (Narrative Criticism)

譯名:尚未有官方的譯名.有人譯為-襯け鑑法故事批判敘事批判,我認為譯作故事分析法,較反映應用的情況.

定義:

  1. A form of textual criticism that is a continuation of redaction criticism, looking at the text as story world. An interdisciplinary effort to adopt secular literary criticism. Distinguishes between real and implied author. Seeks to interpret the text from the point of view of the implied reader. Narrative must be read sequentially and completely. Reader agrees to accept the dynamics and value system of the story world as established by the implied author.(source) [Remark: There is something strange in this definition. Narrative criticism is a protest against redaction criticism, rather than a continuation. It always contrasts its method with redaction criticism.]
  2. Narrative criticism focuses on biblical narrative, analyzing plot, sequence and timing of events, characterization, and the use of literary techniques such as irony, humor, and repetition as ways of developing the story and its significant themes. (source)
  3. Narrative Criticism: The type of literary criticism described below is referred to as Narrative Criticism, which focuses on the literary shape of the text. The narrative critic examines the text to discern its aspect (fiction or non-fiction, prose or poetry), genre (history, legend, myth, etc.), structure (including plot, theme, irony, foreshadowing, etc.), characterization, and narrative perspective. (source)

簡介

在八十年代初期,美國的聖經批判學者 與 非聖經的文學批評理論相結合而成.但文學世界並沒有相對應的襯ぃ憪P學,最相近的是襯ご祩(narrative poetics)和襯ず(narratology).敘事批判學者以福音書是一個文學性的整體.他們關心的不再是福音書的起源,而是文本內各要素間的互動關係;以及它們怎樣產生意義.傳統上的分類包括:人物(Character),佈局(Plot),場景(Setting).參考襯ずョA他們加上修辭學(rhetoric)或論述(discourse)--故事怎樣被講述.

 
Narrative Text
 
Real Author ---> Implied Author ---> (Narrator) ---> (Narratee) ---> Implied Reader ---> ---> Real Reader
           

The inplied author [coined by Wayner Booth] refers to the 'creating person who is implied by the totality of a given work when it is offered to the world'. Note that when the real author is dead, the implied author continues to communicate with the readers. The readers may not have direct access to the real author, but the implied author is always reachable.

寫短文的要求參考

內容簡介:


方法 Method [taken from Narrative Criticism]

To examine a text as a literary critic would, apply these four steps to it:

1. 分析文體 Analyze the form (literary aspect and genre) of the text. Is it fiction or non-fiction, prose or poetry? What is its genre?

N2.2.3. Here is an incomplete list of various narrative themes and genres.

  • narratives of personal experience: Labov's (1972) famous analysis of a corpus of stories based on interview questions such as "Were you ever in a situation where you were in serious danger of being killed?".
  • biblical narratives: Kermode (1979); Sternberg (1985); Bal (1987, 1988).
  • teacher's narratives: Cortazzi (1993).
  • children's narratives: Applebee (1978); Branigan (1992: 18-19).
  • doctor's narratives: Hunter (1993).
  • family narratives: Flint (1988); Jonnes (1990); Style 31.2 (1997) [special issue, ed. John Knapp].
  • courtroom narratives/legal narratives: Brooks and Gewirtz, eds. (1996); Posner (1997)
  • historiographic autobiography/fictional autobiography: Lejeune (1989); Cohn (1999: ch. 2); Loschnigg (1999).
  • hypertext narratives: Ryan (1997)
  • musical narratives: McClary (1997)
  • filmic narratives: Kozloff (1988); Chatman (1978; 1990); see also this project's film page pppf.htm
  • mental (or 'internal') narratives: Schank (1995); Ricoeur (1991); Turner (1996); Jahn (2003)

2. 分析文學結構 Analyze the literary structure of the piece. Follow this procedure:

a . 場景(Setting) - setting = The general locale and historical time in which the action of a story occurs; it can also refer to the particular physical location in which a particular scene or episode occurs.

c. 元素 Elements - What are the key symbol(s)? motif(s)? theme(s)?

3. 分析故事中的人物 Analyze the characters in the story. (人物造型 characterization)

More reference from Narratology 7.7-7.8

N7.7. E.M. Forster's distinction between flat characters and round characters concerns the psychological depth or sophistication of a person's perceived character traits:

flat character/static character A one-dimensional figure characterized by a very restricted range of speech and action patterns. A flat character does not develop in the course of the action and can often be reduced to a type or even a caricature (e.g., "a typical Cockney housewife", "a bureaucrat" etc.). Flat characters are often used for comic effect.-- Mrs. Micawber in Dickens's David Copperfield is characterized by keeping on saying "I never will desert Mr. Micawber".

round character/dynamic character A three-dimensional figure characterized by many, often conflicting, properties. A round character tends to develop in the course of the action and is not reducible to a type. Forster (1976 [1927]); Rimmon-Kenan (1983: 40-42); Pfister (1988: 177-179). Rimmon-Kenan (1983: 41) identifies Stephen in Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Strether in James's The Ambassadors as round characters.

N7.8. Here is a brief list of functionally determined character types (to be expanded):

confidant (fem., confidante) Somebody the protagonist can speak to, exchange views with, confide in -- usually a close friend. -- Dr. Watson is Sherlock Holmes's confidant (and also his 'foil', see below). Sam is Frodo's confidant in Tolkien's Lord of the Rings.

foil character A foil is, literally, "a sheet of bright metal that is placed under a piece of jewelry to increase its brilliancy" (Holman 1972); one meaning of to foil is 'to enhance by contrast'. In literature, a minor character highlighting certain features of a major character, usually through contrast. -- In Weldon's "Weekend", Janet is a foil for Katie and Katie is a foil for Martha. Sherlock Holmes's cleverness is highlighted by Dr. Watson's dullness.

chorus character Originally a convention in drama, an uninvolved character ("man in the street") commenting on characters or events, typically speaking philosophically, sententiously, or in clichms.

"One time we had a mayor of Chicago punched your King George right in the snoot [...]. Don't forget now," says the cabbie, "It's better here, so if you don't like it go back where you came from." (Bradbury, "Composition" 289) [The American taxi driver who takes William, a British student, to the campus.]

4. 故事的角度 Examine the narrative perspective of the account. (How the story is told? Narrator) Narration

 

CONCEPTS FOR NARRATIVE CRITICISM

Characters
Events (or Plot)
Settings
Overt and implicit commentary (Narrator, point of view)
  • Flat, round, and stock
  • Degree of focalization
  • Inside or outside views
  • Telling and showing
  • Ideological point of view (and that of the narrator - empathy or sympathy)
  • Order
  • Duration
  • Frequency (told once, happened once; happened once, told repeatedly; happened repeatedly, told once; happened repeatedly, told repeatedly)
  • Causation
  • Plot
  • Time
  • Place
  • Social
  • Point of view of narration
    • person
    • knowledge
    • reliability
  • Irony
  • Allusion

Implied author - the image of the author derived from reading the story.

Implied reader - "the one who performs all the mental moves required to enter into the narrative world and respond to it as the implied author intends" (R. Alan Culpepper, Anatomy of the Fourth Gospel [Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983] 7).

The following outline is taken from Narratology 7.6

N7.6. The implicit self-characterization of a narrator is always a key issue in interpretation. Is the narrator omniscient? competent? opinionated? self-conscious? well-read? ironic? reliable? See Genette (1980: 182-185); Lanser (1981); Rimmon-Kenan (1983: 59-67, 100-103); Stanzel (1984: 150-152); N▋ning (1997; 1998; 1999).

reliable narrator A narrator "whose rendering of the story and commentary on it the reader is supposed to take as an authoritative account of the fictional truth" (Rimmon-Kenan 1983: 100).

unreliable narrator A narrator "whose rendering of the story and/or commentary on it the reader has reasons to suspect. [...] The main sources of unreliability are the narrator's limited knowledge, his personal involvement, and his problematic value-scheme" (Rimmon-Kenan 1983: 100). Many first-person narrators are unreliable.

True! - nervous - very, very dreadfully nervous I had been and am! but why will you say that I am mad? The disease had sharpened my senses - not destroyed - not dulled them. Above all was the sense of hearing acute. I heard all things in the heaven and in the earth. I heard many things in hell. How, then, am I mad? Hearken! and observe how healthily - how calmly I can tell you the whole story. (Poe, beginning of "The Tell-Tale Heart") [Not at all a "healthy" and "calm" way of beginning a story!]

Some theorists make an explicit distinction between 'mimetic (un)reliability' and 'evaluative' or 'normative (un)reliability': "a narrator may be quite trustworthy in reporting events but not competent in interpreting them, or may confuse certain facts but have a good understanding of their implications" (Lanser 1981: 171). According to Cohn (1999: ch. 8), Thomas Mann's Tod in Venedig is told by a mimetically reliable but normatively unreliable narrator. See also N▋ning (1999); Yacobi (2000).

not as a character
as a character
reliable
implied author = narrator
unreliable

 

The following outline is taken from THE HERMENEUTICAL SPIRAL: A Comprehensive Introduction to Biblical Interpretation By Grant R. Osborne

6. Narrative

The Methodology of Narrative Criticism

1. Implied Author and Narrator
2. Point of View, Ideology and Narrative World
3. Narrative and Story Time
4. Plot
5. Characterization
6. Setting
7. Implicit Commentary
8. The Implied Reader

The Weakness of Narrative Criticism

1. A Dehistoricizing Tendency
2. Setting Aside the Author
3. A Denial of Intended or Referential Meaning
4. Reductionistic and Disjunctive Thinking
5. The Imposition of Modern Literary Categories upon Ancient Genres
6. A Preoccupation with Obscure Theories
7. Ignoring the Understanding of the Early Church
8. A Rejection of the Sources behind the Books

Methodological Principles for Studying Narrative Texts

1. Structural Analysis
2. Stylistic Analysis
3. Redactional Analysis
4. Exegetical Analysis
5. Theological Analysis
6. Contextualization
7. Use a Narrative Form for the Sermon

 

Introduction

Bibliography

Narrative Theory

Methodology

Examples in Applying this method

Criticism in General

Specific Narrative Techniques


Books

Book Reviews

Method

Course Outlines from other scholars