OLD TESTAMENT THEOLOGY
-purpose of OT Theology
-what OT Theology can and should include ?
- Diachronic: von Rad ---> tradition history.
- Systematic: Eichrodt ---> covenant // Westermann : relationship // Zimmerli
: of Yahweh.
- Synchronic: B Childs ---> canonical (final text in Hebrew Bible)
Diachronic 1. show the growing process. 1. hypothetical 2. process >>
Systematic 1. main themes is clarified. 1. too general answer 2. ignore historical
background 3. ancient Israel doesn't have this kind of theology.
History of OT Theology
- 1) OT as promise/prophecy: 1 Cor 15:3b-5 "accordance with scriptures"
- 2) OT as law: "law" = OT (Jn 10:34) ; typology + allegory
- OT interpreted by Christ Event + some material are problematic for NT writers.
-early church (positive attitude but also Marcion)
- 3) Struggle in the early church.
- Marcion : gnostic attitude to creation, reject OT's God. [NT= Luke + some
- Origen (allegory) Vs Antioch (literal)
- Rashi (11th C) ---> Nicholas of Lyra (-1349) ---> Luther : Literal
- historical consciousness. interest in biblical languages.
- Sola Scriptura (1519): Christ is the centre of the Bible (norma normans)
-rise of historical research
- 1787 Johann Philip Gabler OT Vs NT
- 1792 G.L. Baurs ---> 1831 de Wette 1885 Wellhausen
- 1902 History of religion school --> Bible-Bablylon dispute: Biblical
writers borrow & rewrite myths.
- 1930-60 "golden time" of OT Theology.
- 1933 Sellin 1933 W. Eichrodt (covenant)
- 1960s Gerhard von Rad
[Ref: Groves, Joseph W. Actualization and interpretation in the OT
. SBL Disssertation Series 86. Atlanta: Scholars, 1987.]
Theological main streams in OT (history/development of OT faith):
-the result of OT Study
- quite certain certain probably hypothetical
- Pentateuch fragmentary P; D J dating of J; E? (=Js/Ds) Deut history -----
frag.; monarch->exilic editing process ----------
- Prophetical bks fragmentary final bk from diff C. AIM's sayings ----------
- Chronistic writ. ----- use Pent & D hist again 350-250 BC (400BC)
- Wisdom liter. post-exilic/Gk. [uncertain : relationship of wisdom literature
to the OT Theology]
- Prov: pre-exilic
- Apocalyptic/Dan ---- Dan dated 167-4 BC Hellenistic/Seleucid
- [partly unsolved is the tradition hist. background of apocalyptic movement.]
Content: only partly coherent & continuing. Gen 2:4b - Num 24:24. Ending
of story (Josh-Judg)?
Theology: Cpfa Fwl
-Books of early prophets: AIM (Amos, Isaiah, Micah)
Message: Judgment on the Ruler, because the abused justice (oppression of
poor), hence the cult is criticized (Am 5:4). Instruction: seek good &
do justice (Am 5:14); then a better future will come. (Am 9:11-15)
Voc: Obey law (6:3) ---> love God, with all your Heart & soul (6:5)
---> since God leads you from the House of slavery (6:12); then don't follow
other gods. (6:14).
The land which God gives you (4:40) ---> because he chooses you (4:37),
then do right in the sight of God.(4:25). He has choosen the site. (12:5).
Theology: Centralization of the cult, since you are the People of God (4:37)[4+3=7].
Yahweh is the only God (6:4)of the Israelites, hence Obey law (6:5,13).
OT as theological unity
-theological centre of OT
- No Centre: von Rad-- the actualization process of OT is the centre. (Vs
Eichrodt: covenant )
- Proposals: God (Hasel; Reventlow) ---> What kind of God ?
- Monotheism: (Schmidt) ---> What kind of Monotheism ? 1st comm. is late
- Relationship : Yahweh & Israel (Smend): dipolar centre(God, people);
but it is dynamic!
- Dialogue (or : meeting as revelation, including non-verbal commu. by Timo
Veijola) (all fits this model except Ecclesiastes: no living dialogue with
- Apocalyptic: God's monologue.)
-OT as churchyard & part of x'n Bible
validity of OT & its relationship to NT