-purpose of OT Theology

-what OT Theology can and should include ?

  1. Diachronic: von Rad ---> tradition history.
  2. Systematic: Eichrodt ---> covenant // Westermann : relationship // Zimmerli : of Yahweh.
  3. Synchronic: B Childs ---> canonical (final text in Hebrew Bible)

Strength Weakness

Diachronic 1. show the growing process. 1. hypothetical 2. process >> canon ?

Systematic 1. main themes is clarified. 1. too general answer 2. ignore historical background 3. ancient Israel doesn't have this kind of theology.

History of OT Theology

-NT use

-early church (positive attitude but also Marcion)


-rise of historical research

[Ref: Groves, Joseph W. Actualization and interpretation in the OT . SBL Disssertation Series 86. Atlanta: Scholars, 1987.]

Theological main streams in OT (history/development of OT faith):

-the result of OT Study

  1. quite certain certain probably hypothetical
  2. Pentateuch fragmentary P; D J dating of J; E? (=Js/Ds) Deut history ----- frag.; monarch->exilic editing process ----------
  3. Prophetical bks fragmentary final bk from diff C. AIM's sayings ----------
  4. Chronistic writ. ----- use Pent & D hist again 350-250 BC (400BC)
  5. Wisdom liter. post-exilic/Gk. [uncertain : relationship of wisdom literature to the OT Theology]
  6. Prov: pre-exilic
  7. Apocalyptic/Dan ---- Dan dated 167-4 BC Hellenistic/Seleucid
  8. [partly unsolved is the tradition hist. background of apocalyptic movement.]


Content: only partly coherent & continuing. Gen 2:4b - Num 24:24. Ending of story (Josh-Judg)?

Theology: Cpfa Fwl

-Books of early prophets: AIM (Amos, Isaiah, Micah)

Message: Judgment on the Ruler, because the abused justice (oppression of poor), hence the cult is criticized (Am 5:4). Instruction: seek good & do justice (Am 5:14); then a better future will come. (Am 9:11-15)

-deuteronomistic theology

Voc: Obey law (6:3) ---> love God, with all your Heart & soul (6:5) ---> since God leads you from the House of slavery (6:12); then don't follow other gods. (6:14).

The land which God gives you (4:40) ---> because he chooses you (4:37), then do right in the sight of God.(4:25). He has choosen the site. (12:5).

Theology: Centralization of the cult, since you are the People of God (4:37)[4+3=7].

Yahweh is the only God (6:4)of the Israelites, hence Obey law (6:5,13).

-priestly tradition

-chronistic theology

-wisdom literature



OT as theological unity

-theological centre of OT

  1. No Centre: von Rad-- the actualization process of OT is the centre. (Vs Eichrodt: covenant )
  2. Proposals: God (Hasel; Reventlow) ---> What kind of God ?
  3. Monotheism: (Schmidt) ---> What kind of Monotheism ? 1st comm. is late development.
  4. Relationship : Yahweh & Israel (Smend): dipolar centre(God, people); but it is dynamic!
  5. Dialogue (or : meeting as revelation, including non-verbal commu. by Timo Veijola) (all fits this model except Ecclesiastes: no living dialogue with God. &
  6. Apocalyptic: God's monologue.)

-OT as churchyard & part of x'n Bible

validity of OT & its relationship to NT