Mon, 5 January, 2004
Mon, 5 January, 2004
為何要學希臘文? (Why Study Greek?)
- No translation
is perfect; it is not possible to transfer everything from one language
into another. However, in the final analysis, whether we choose to study
God's Word from a translation, literal or not, the Scriptures were communicated
in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek; all
else is translation.
A. T. Robertson, a distinguished Greek scholar, wrote in his Preface
to the third edition of A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light
of Historical Research, “The Greek New Testament is the New Testament.
All else is translation. Jesus speaks to us out of every page of the Greek.
To get these words of Jesus it is worthwhile to plow through any grammar
and to keep on to the end.”
- Language is an expression of culture. Learning Greek is a gateway into
further understanding the culture in which the New Testament was written.
- You need to learn these languages to give you access to other tools: commentaries
that will help you explore the text more fully, and Bible dictionaries that
will help you understand how words and concepts function in the Biblical
- To read the texts in Greek means to wrestle with these texts and their
meanings on an intimate level. To grapple with issues of vocabulary and
grammar slows you down enough to listen to these texts more deeply that
you have probably done before, and to puzzle over the text's meaning and
purpose. To deal with the texts on this level is a part of being a community
that listens; learning Greek will help you to listen to the texts in a new
- Studying Greek beckons students into deeper contact with the New Testament
learn to think critically
investigate the origins of philosophy
perform great drama
meet the people of the world's first democracy
explore Greek mythology
read Homer, Sophocles, Plato, and Luke in their own words.
Greek has a great influence on the Western culture and
it has influenced the Latin too.
From the earliest times the Greeks had penetrated and molded Italic civilization.
Greek craftsmen and purveyors of culture, high and low, had settled in
Rome supplying words from their various callings. Roman nobles had brought
Greek pedagogues to instruct their children… The upper classes had become
bilingual, receiving formal instruction in Greek even before their own
language. (L.R. Palmer, The Latin Language 176)
Greek has influenced Latin and English has been affected
by these two languages heavily, especially from 1500s onwards.
- Greek is the language used to formulate the doctrines in the catholic
councils. To understand the doctrines fully included this language and its
philosophy. (about 15% of the
words in the English language come from Greek.) Estimated by Prof.
Louis H. Feldman. Besides, GREEK ROOTS
contains: over 500 modern English roots with their original Greek meanings.over
1000 modern Greek derived prefixes and suffixes. The
Greek Influence on the English Language: In this page you can see a
good example how Greek words influence English (about 19% of the words used
are derived from Greek in this example). according to the Webster International
Dictionary the total of the word stock of the English language is 166,724
words, out of which 41,214 are Greek. On the other hand,
A. Konstandinides, in his remarkable work “The Greek Words in the English
language”, argues that the whole of the medical
terminology in English amounts to 43,716 words, out of which
20,346 are Greek. [Details please see my lecture note: Use
Your Greek in Daily Life (2): Greek influence on English]
- Many English words are rooted
in the Greek Language. The terminology of modern sciences and technologies
is derived mainly from Greek.
- The study of the Greek roots
of English raises awareness of the functions and modes of expression in
a variety of languages.
- Greece is the birthplace of democracy and the cradle
of Western civilization.
- Some of the greatest works of literature were
written in Greek.
- Greek was the first language
of Christianity and the New Testament. (Greek NT &
LXX in PDF Downloadable)
- The first institution of higher
learning, The Academy, was founded in Greece.
- Many of the Founding Fathers
of the United States
were knowledgeable in the Greek language.
- Greece is a member of the European Union and holds a
strategic geographical position in the Mediterranean region.
- Many Bronx
Science Graduates have been able to continue with their study of Modern
Greek as prestigious universities such as Harvard, Yale, Columbia, and Georgetown.
Up to the twentieth
century, in Europe and those areas of the world strongly influenced by the
European tradition, Classics dominated the educational curriculum. To be educated
was to be familiar with the ancient Greek and Roman world. Thus, knowledge
of Classics is indispensable for the understanding of the European intellectual,
political, religious and artistic tradition. In a multicultural, multilingual
city like San Antonio, Classics has a particular relevance: the Classical
tradition is the common heritage of both the Hispanic and Anglo communities.
principles and analytic skills developed in the study of the Classical languages
Greek and Latin, both of which differ substantially from Spanish and English,
are immediately useful in developing an educated English or Spanish speaking
and writing style. Spanish, of course, is a direct descendant of Latin,
and any deep understanding of Spanish requires Latin study. At the same
time, since most technical, scientific and intellectual terminology in both
English and Spanish derives from Latin and Greek roots, the study of the
ancient languages develops vocabulary as well.
While the study
of Classics therefore develops modern Americans' understanding of our own
culture, it also helps us appreciate other cultures. By some counts, fifty-seven
nations on four continents trace their intellectual heritage back to the
Greek and Roman world. The study of the Classics thus can link us with the
people of all these countries. Study of Greek and Latin facilitates the
acquisition of modern foreign languages—not only the numerous modern languages
derived from them, but also languages like Russian and German and even Chinese,
Arabic and Japanese. Moreover, as indebted as we are to the Greeks and Romans,
in many ways they were very different from us. An exposure to the Classical
world broadens one's perspective on what it means to be human and encourages
tolerance and understanding of other human beings.
[Webmaster: I think it is claiming too much! Chinese, Arabic and Japanese
are of different language system! But Russian and German are really related
to them, because they are from the Indo-European language family (thus they
used infectional endings too). Greek has great influence on Latin and English,
thus it is really a great language for you to learn. You are using more
Greek languages and thought than you think.]
1. 原文解經：解釋大部份的約翰福音經文時，可以直接用原文, 也會對解其他福音書有幫助.
3. 歷史神學：因為不少的系統神學的概念建構是早期用希臘文建構的, 所以對神學思想會有點幫助.(例如: 三一神論討論中的 homo-ousia /
4. 英語學習：因為英語是受希臘文及拉丁文影響的, 所以會對英文學習有一點幫助.(文法會比較清楚).
5. 其他語文：對學習其他印歐系(Indo-European)語言有幫助. 因為文法結構和ending system是相關的. 例如: 拉丁語, 德文,
法文, 等都是用ending 改變來構成新的用字的.
6. 聖地文化：如果有時間會加上一些聖地的資料 及 希臘文化, 幫助大家了解聖經的背景和實況.
- Try this page: Kurie
eleison (Click on the music and listen): Kyrie Eleison (Greek for "Lord
have mercy"; the Latin transliteration supposes a pronunciation as
in Modern Greek) is a very old, even pre-Christian, expression used constantly
in all Christian liturgies. (Greek Note: Kurie is the vocative case for the
word, Kurios (Lord), and eleison (is the verb, "(have) mercy.")
In what tense?
- 你認為甚麼會對你有幫助呢？ 例如：有誰可以畫 cartoon / clipart? （希望幫助學習用）．
- Site: Foreign
Languages for Travelers Let's play with the
Travelers' fun (Please choose Greek!)
Greek Text can be found in the following links:
(More information click here)
1 text in Jpeg form (picture), so the font problem cannot affect it; but
it loads slower.
- Greek fonts are in Symbols font (found in Windows System) or SPIonic
font or BSTGreek font.
這個約翰福音的希臘文全書 (我們會用約翰福音第1章1-12節, 請自行印出.)
Greek New Testament (With different Greek source, Vulgate, English Translations)
1. 一年內看懂約翰福音的八成內容. (避免神學院般的功課壓力, 進度會慢些; 以便吸收.) 〔因為教科書的特別設計，它包括了新約全書約85%的生字．Wenham,
2. 希望包括一些受希臘文影響的英文, 以致使學員的英文水平, 因學本課程而提高. 反之，也可以幫助記希臘文生字．（這是基於以往學者引入希臘文；加上近代用希臘文來派生出新的字(Neo-Hellenization
- There are many English derivatives
from Greek roots (about 15% of the words in the English language come from
Greek.) Estimated by Prof.
Louis H. Feldman
- It's guaranteed to help your
vocabulary score on standardized exams such as the infamous S.A.T.! It'd be
like getting a free SAT course five days a week! ( Top
reason why students learn Greek.)
- The impact of Greek upon the
vocabulary of all languages, including English, has been enormous. Such prefixes
as poly- (much, many), micro- (small), anti- (against), auto- (self), hemi-
(half), hetero- (different), chrono- (time), tele- (distance), geo- (earth),
physio- (nature), photo- (light), hydro- (water), litho- (stone), phono- (sound),
anthropo- (man), psycho- (mind), and philo- (love), each generate dozens of
vital words in scientific, technical, and other fields. Equally important
Greek suffixes are -meter (measure), -gram (letter), -graph (write), -scope
(see), -phone (sound), and -phobia (fear). (From
Greek (Modern) Language)
- Check some English words in Dictionary.com,
and see their Greek / Latin roots.
Cross Reference Search: You can search in either one language; but they
only provide very brief information.
- 希望學習中是愉快的．(Have Fun with Greek!)
J. W. The Elements of New Testament Greek. (Cambridge: CUP, 19xx.) 由講師集體購買.
- Friberg, Barbara & Timonthy.
Analytical Greek New Testament. Baker's Greek NT Library. Grand Rapids: Baker,
- Abbott-Smith, G. A Manual Lexicon
of the New Testament T & T Clark, Edinburgh 1991.
- Dobson, J.H. Learn New Testament
Greek 2nd edn Bible Society, 1992.
- Perschbacher, W. The New Analytical
Greek Lexicon Hendrickson, USA 1990.
- Zerwick M A Grammatical Analysis
of the Greek New Testament Pontificio Istitutio Biblico, Rome 1996.
網上相關的課程 On-line Study Courses：
(More information click here)
Courses and Course Materials; Introduction;
Learning NT Greek ; Greek
New Testament ; Lesson
1: The Greek Alphabet
Brief History of the Greek Language; History;
this Greek font
15968367 (number) Phil the Great (name)
Instant Messenger: PhilEnid