新約導讀 - 第二課: - 約翰福音

1. 約翰福音... 1

a. 簡介... 1

b. 結構... 2

c. 風格... 2

d. 神學特徵... 5

e. 文學分析 (Literary Approach: Narrative criticism). 5

Note: Greek font may be in SPIonic or Symbol.

參考書/資料:

1. 滕慕理著 新約綜覽 (香港: 宣道, 1985).

2. Kysar, Robert. “John, The Gospel of,” Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, pp. 912- 931.

3. Krentz, Edgar. M. “Thessalonians, First and Second Epistles to the,” Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol. 6, pp. 515-523.

4. Johnson, L.T. “ Luke-Acts, Book of,” Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol. 4, pp. 403- 420.

5. 我的網上雜誌:使徒行傳課程內容: http://philenid.tripod.com

6. New backup site: http://philipyim.0catch.com

7. Books: The Social World of Luke-Acts: Models for Interpretation Edited by Jerome H. Neyrey

8. Tannehill Robert C. , The Narrative Unity of Luke-Acts--A Literary Interpretation Volume 2: The Acts of the Apostles

9. On-line Research information on John

1. 約翰福音

[other reference: Characteristics ;

a. 簡介

[other reference: Jones, Edgar The Authorship of the Fourth Gospel ]

The Internal Evidence of the Fourth Gospel

1. 寫作日期: 公元40-110年間,但不少學者定在90-95(Jamnia大會),也有部份提議在80-85年。

2. 作者:約翰。

b. 結構

以往不少學者認為約翰地理上的編排有點問題,於是努力重新編排內容。但後來發現這書根本不是以地理編排為主線的。內容大致可以分為兩大部份。

George Mlakuzhyil's The Christocentric Literary Structure of the Fourth Gospel was described as a book with which to be reckoned (cf. Kerux 5:1 [May 1990]: 47-50)In response to theis, the Scandanavian journal, Studia Theologia, featured a major critique of Mlakuzhyil by Gunnar Ostenstad entitled "The Structure of the Fourth Gospel: Can it be Defined Objectively?" (Vol. 45 [1991]: 33-55.) :- 三文治結構.

Taking Jn. 8:12-12:50 as the central section of the gospel, Ostenstad argues that the remainder of the book is oriented concentrically around this central section.

1. Part One consists of 1:19-2:25;

2. Part Two, 3:1-4:54;

3. Part Three, 5:1-7:52.

4. Part Four is the Central Section (8:12-12:50).

5. Part Five spans 13:1-17:26;

6. Part Six is the Johannine Passion Narrative, 18:1-19:42;

7. Part Seven includes 20:1-21:24.

The whole is flanked by the Prologue (1:1-18) and the Epilogue (21:25).

[更多參考資料: The Gospel of John: An Introduction, by James T. Dennison, Jr.
The Structure of John's Gospel The Present State of the Question, , by James T. Dennison, Jr.]

1-12章 徵兆之書(Book of Signs) 耶穌公開的工作:在加利利和猶大之間活動。

13-20章榮耀之書(Book of Glory) 與門徒的獨處(13-17章) 耶穌的受死(18-21章)

c. 風格

[Other: THE SOCIOLOGY OF SECRECY AND THE FOURTH GOSPEL]

1. 使用不少獨有的字: 生命,光,黑暗,真理,世界,猶太人,知道,中保,兒子(Son)。 “差我來者”指天父 , 在其他福音書很少這樣用法。

2. 獨有: 重複的用字 “實實在在”(amen amen) (約1:51; 10:1; 12:24)。

3. 特有: 七個“我是…” (ego eimi, I “I am” egw eimi ; e)gw‾ ei¹mi - 6:20, 35, 51; 8:24; 15:5)[應用:認識主大能] ["I AM" Sayings in the Fourth Gospel (in Greek)] Seven of these occur with predicate nominative: [1]

i) 我是生命糧I am the Bread of Life (6:35,51)
ii)
我是世界的光I am the Light of the World (8:12; 9:5)
iii)
我是門 I am the Gate (10:7,9)
iv)
我是好牧人 I am the good Shepherd (10:11,14)
v)
我是復活生命I am the Resurrection and the Life (11:25)
vi)
我是道路真理生命I am the Way, the Truth and the Life (14:6)
vii)
我是真葡萄樹I am the True Vine (15:1)

4. 論述段長篇大論(對比 太5-7章; 約14-16章)。

5. 希臘文用字上, 混合同義詞使用 (例: 約3章; 約21章)。字彙很少 ,文法簡單。風格反映有猶太人背景,有部份閃語加入。

6. 重覆: 可能是詩歌体風格。例如: 約17章 。(有平行, 音律), 可能方便公開頌讀。

7. 也談到聖靈的工作:以聖靈為保惠師與耶穌相提並論。

8. 記號(Signs): 神蹟作為記號 (slmeion, shmeion),重視生命。 七個神蹟

Traditional list of seven (or eight?) signs: [2]

a) 2:1-11 Water into Wine at Cana - "Jesus did this, the first of his signs... and manifested his glory" (2:11)
b) 4:46-54 Official’s son near death at Capernaum - "the second sign that Jesus did" (4:54)
c?) 5:1-9ff Healing of a sick man at Pool of Bethesda - called a "work," not a "sign" (7:21; cf. 5:17)
d) 6:1-14ff Feeding of the 5000 - "When the people saw the sign which he had done..." (6:14)
e?) 6:16-21 Walking on water (never called a "sign", and does not function as one!)
f) 9:1-7ff Healing of a man born blind - "How can a sinner do such signs?" (9:16)
g) 11:1-45 Lazarus raised from the dead - "they heard he had done this sign" (12:18)

h?) 21:1-14 Resurrection Appearance at Sea of Tiberias (not called a "sign", but closely related)

=================

a) 2:1-11 Water into Wine at Cana - "Jesus did this, the first of his signs... and manifested his glory" (2:11)
b) 4:46-54 Official’s son near death at Capernaum - "the second sign that Jesus did" (4:54)
c?) 5:1-9ff Healing of a sick man at Pool of Bethesda - called a "work," not a "sign" (7:21; cf. 5:17)
d) 6:1-14ff Feeding of the 5000 - "When the people saw the sign which he had done..." (6:14)
f) 9:1-7ff Healing of a man born blind - "How can a sinner do such signs?" (9:16)
g) 11:1-45 Lazarus raised from the dead - "they heard he had done this sign" (12:18)

h?) 21:1-14 Death & Resurrection Appearance (not called a "sign", but closely related)

or delete c) & Take 5 signs with Jesus’ death & resurrection as the 6th and 7th ones.

"Many other signs" mentioned, but not narrated: 2:23; 3:2; 6:2; 7:31; 9:16; 11:47; 12:37; 20:30-31; cf. 4:45

Greek term

English transl.

Matt

Mark

Luke

John

Acts

rest of NT

du/namij (dynamis)

"power; mighty deed(s)"

12

10

15

0

10

72

shmei/on (semeion)

"sign(s)"

13

7

11

17

13

16

te/raj (teras)

"wonder(s)" [always w/ "signs"]

1

1

0

1

9

5

e)/rgon (ergon)

"work(s)" or "deed(s)"

6

2

2

27

10

122

(all words)

All words: Total

32

20

28

45

42

215

signs +works

19

9

13

44

23

138

signs +works /total

0.59375

0.45

0.464286

0.977778

0.547619

0.64186

signs/total

0.40625

0.35

0.392857

0.377778

0.309524

0.074419

works/total

0.1875

0.1

0.071429

0.6

0.238095

0.567442

d. 神學特徵

1. 基督: 神與神的道, 七個“我是”, 兒子名號, 那差來者, 來源與命定

2. 十字架: 登位, 得榮耀與升天, 新逾越節, 神愛的高艀瘞(15:13)

3. 二元論: 光明對比黑暗(1:5); 上和下(8:23); 生死(3:36)

4. 信心: 信耶穌 (believe in; 1:12; 3;18; 12:46), 個人委身。

5. 末世論: 未來復活(6:39-40, 54), 審判(現在 3;18)

6. 聖靈: =神同在(4:42); 保惠師(14:15-17; 15:26-27; 16:7-11,12-14)

7. 聖禮: 沒直接講聖禮; 耶穌沒給人行浸禮(3:22; 4:2)? [對約3章]

8. 教會: 聖靈同在; 與世界不同(1;12); 枝子(15:1-7)

參考書:

Culpepper, R. Alan. Anatomy of the Fourth Gospel: A Study in Literary Design. (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983).

e. 文學分析 (Literary Approach: Narrative criticism)

這堨u包括暗示性註釋(Implicit Commentary: - Misunderstanding, Symbolism, Irony)

1. 誤解 (misunderstanding) –基督(用象徵) j 對象(用字面) 例: 約4 撒瑪利亞婦人.

1. 對比對觀福音, 耶穌會在私下向門徒講解比喻.

2. 3:3 ( anwqen ) :- 重新again (尼哥底母) / 重上來 (耶穌)

3. 3:5 水和靈 及 水和浸禮 (從水而生)

4. 4:10-11 “水”問題 (活水‘udwr zwn )

5. 8:33 “自由”問題 (政治不自由j屬靈自由, 不受罪影響.)

6. 11:11-12 “睡” ( kekoimhtai ) j.

7. 11:23-24 “復活” (Anasthsetai ) 將來復活(v.24) j現在復活(v.25) .

8. 14:5-8 我們不知你往那堨h.

誤解主題主要集中耶穌的死, 復活, 榮耀(2:19-21; 6:51-53; 7:33-36; 8:21-22; 12:32-34; 13:36-38; 14:4-6; 16:16-19).

作用:

1. 分別局內人(insiders, 明白耶穌的人)及局外人.

2. 去除對約翰神學的懷疑或錯覺.

3. 教導讀者是解讀約翰福音.

2. 象徵 (Symbolism) –基督(用象徵) j 對象(用字面) 例: 約4 撒瑪利亞婦人.

物質

象徵及經文

2 a) 大量 b) 彌賽亞筵席

聖殿[他的身体]

2:13 以他的身体代替聖殿

7:38; 19:34 (水和血=洗禮); 4 (活泉, =恩典或聖靈)

麵包Bread

6 (信神? 聖餐, 屬靈食物=神自己)

, 看見, 瞎

1(前言), 約3:19-21; 8:12; 約9

好牧人

葡萄樹和枝子

聖禮

全部皆是? O. Cullmann

3. 反諷 (Irony) –基督(用象徵) j 對象(用字面) 例: 約4 撒瑪

表面意義

深層意義

經文

比雅各大

神比雅各大

4:12

去希臘人處?去那裡呢?

去死

7:35

自殺?我們不能去?

被殺

8:22

我們知道這人是罪人! 我們是瞎的嗎?!

法利賽人是屬靈瞎眼

9:24-40

要殺耶穌

耶穌為人贖罪. 無意識地預言

11:48-50

耶穌被視為君王般,被戲弄.

是的, 他是君王!

19:3,14,19,22

4. 多重意義 (Levels of Meaning)

3:3 a)nwqen– anothen 兩解 :- 上, 重新

3:8 to\ pneu~ma – to pneuma 多解 :- 風, 靈, 氣息

3:14u(/ywsen– hupswsen 被舉起: 基督的榮耀在十字架被高舉(shame)

13:1 ei)v te/lov – eis telos 兩解:- to the end(last point), the Finish (X), to an extreme.

19:30-31 tetelestai – v.30 tetelestai (It is finished) What is finished?

1) finished 2) pefected.

v.31 pare/dwken to\ pneu~ma

1)He died 2) He gave Holy Spirit to the Lord.



[1] http://homepage.ntlworld.com/rsposse/iamintro.htm Carson comments "The precise form is unique to the Fourth Gospel, but as Barrett notes, the Synoptics display other forms of ‘I’ utterances, while Synoptic parables ‘provide much of the subject matter of the Johannine ‘I-sayings’." That is, whilst the particular form is peculiarly Johannine, the subject matter of the revelations contained in them are, at least, implicit within the Synoptics.

[2] http://myweb.lmu.edu/fjust/John/Themes-Signs.htm