聖經 及 神學研究 (Biblical and Theological Studies)
書評 (Book Review)
Midi: Leaning On The Everlasting.
Table of Content
- A. The Problem of two levels: Historicity of Text and Markan Story-telling
- B. Observations on Jesus' Ministry in Mark
- Markan Literary Devices
- The Markan Record
- Some Observations
This article attempts to find the meaning of the phrase from the context, with the awareness of four probable levels of understanding, namely the level of Nicodemus, John the gospel writer, Johannine community (and early church), and later churches. Besides, John's style in using "hudatos" in wider context and wordplay will be discussed. This article suggests John preserve the original meaning (spiritual rebirth), which is misunderstood by Nicodemus as physical rebirth. John intends an implicit meaning (born from above, related to baptism) by using "anothen" in v.3, and other contextual implications, following John's Baptism in Ch.2. John's interpretation is used by apostolic and later churches.
羅1:16-17多年來皆被視為全書主題; 但如果加上1:18; 可以發現這節原本是與1:17成為一個對比; 是不可分的一部份. 而且全書皆有一個平衡的對比.
The purposes for Paul writing the Epistle to the Romans are many. The main concern is on his mission to Spain. He hopes to prevent adverse opponents from influencing the Roman Christians and helps them to unify the Christians groups in Romans. The structure of Romans is related to chapter 1. Its theological linkage is based on the importance of Jewish tradition, the Righteousness of God and His wrath. I propose that Paul may have used a "transfer" model to describe the two epochs. This model has unified the whole picture of Romans. The Jews who are using the method of the old epoch are still under the wrath of God. If they join the Gentile Christians who enjoy the new way in the new epoch, then they will have fellowship with each other. The evangelism toward the Jews outside the Roman Christian community is a must which is resolved in Romans 14-15.
We have surveyed the cultural interactions in the Jewish history. In Paul's times, the Jews were living in a multi-cultural setting. Their Jewish identities were ambivalent. They mingled Hellenistic and Jewish cultures and customs in their daily life. Local distinctiveness was also evidenced. The differences between Hellenistic and Palestinian Judaism were actually a local distinctiveness, rather than innate contrast between Judaism and Hellenism. The people in Jerusalem tended to be nationalistic, isolationistic, and Temple-centred. The Galileans were more Hellenized in the lower Galilee, while the upper and central Galilee embraced Hebrew culture. The Galileans strived for independence from the Romans, but the leaders in Jerusalem tended to remain status quo. The diversity of sects in Palestine reminded us the broad spectrum of positions on Torah. The Christians might also have great diversity among them. Paul, as an individual, had his own interpretation on the traditions received. He had changed from a Law-centred understanding into a Christo-centred interpretation. He also abandoned the limitations posed by the Law on the Gentile. This revolutionary interpretation enraged the pious Pharisaic Christians who thought he was heretic. They opposed him and made some compromise under the help of "the three apostles." It was not successful and ended in long time struggle between their positions and that of Paul, even down to the time of Irenaeus.
A. THE AIM AND SCOPE OF THIS STUDY
B. METHODOLOGY AND THESES USED
II. WHAT IS A JEW IN THE TIMES OF PAUL
A. THE CULTURAL INTERACTIONS
B. THE LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS
C. THE VARIETY OF SECTS (ESPECIALLY IN JUDEA)
III. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE: WHAT KIND OF A JEW WAS PAUL?
A. ANALOGY OF A PERSON FROM HONG KONG:
B. PRE-CHRISTIAN PAUL
C. CONVERTED PAUL
1. HIS INTERPRETATION OF THE DAMASCUS EVENT
2. THE CHANGE OF HIS THOUGHT
D. THE MISSIONARY PAUL
C. SECONDARY LITERATURE
希伯來書作者使用的七十士譯本的版本與現存的二個版本皆不同; 但有可能他手中的版本與我們不同; 但他的解經手法反映他不是寓意解經的; 而他是以基督為中心的; 但他創建兩種彌賽亞形象的結合 (僕人和君王).
The author respects the OT text, and sticks to his vorlage (original text) as far as possible. Though the author uses the contemporary exegetical methods at times , but he avoids pesher, midrashic and allegorical approaches. In contrast to them, he uses the Christocentric perspective within traditions of the christian church; except the combination of the two "kinds" of Messiah.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Part A. Observations on the Quotations
1. The range of the Quotations.
2. The mode of the Quotations.
3. The text of the Quotations.
Part B. Exegetical Presuppositions and Practices
1. General Observations
2. Ps 110 taken as an example.
11. 詩110篇研究初探 (Ps 110)
We have studied three important themes in Psalm 110, namely sit the right hand of God, Melchizedek, and Zion. The right hand of God symbolizes the importance of the person referred. The use of this phrase is mostly found in Psalms and later prophets. V.1 has caused a controversy of "David's son as David's lord". This is caused by the translation of LXX. This psalm is later interpreted messianically and the controversy is resolved in the dual nature of Jesus Christ. In section B, Melchizedek is appeared as an ideal priest-king. This model is rejected by the contemporary of the writer of this psalm. This model will produce an absolute power for the king. Melchizedek is re-interpreted differently according to the needs of the Israelites in different times. Zion is taken by David in the establishment of his united kingdom. He used the city as the political and religious center for the whole kingdom. He might have started a synergy of some important gods, like Shalem, Sedeq and Elyon, with Yahweh. Yahweh might be taken as the same as these gods. Besides, He might be taken as the Head of all gods.
Table of Content
The Purpose and the Methodology used in this thesis
I. Basic Analysis
A. Textual Analysis
B. Translation to the text
C. Literary Criticism
D. Form Criticism: Sitz im Leben
II. The Change of Traditions in history: Three Themes
A. Sit at the right hand of God
傳道書(Qoheleth) has showed that searching for the perfect retaliation order in this cursed world is a vain attempt, and is not confirmed by our experience. The tension between futile life and unknowability of God (source of man's meaning) is unsolvable by any man's wisdom or effort. On the contrary, this limit imposed by God and the God-given joy and wealth are the evidences of God's supremacy. Hence, men should be fearful of the Lord "and keep his commandments" (Qoh 12:13), without trying to manipulate our life and God. For Elohim will bring judgment on us! (Qoh 12:14) (Note: This article is based on the "Creation theology" approach.)
TABLE OF CONTENT
3. 兩個形像的綜合D. 小結
A. 聖經歷史中的房地產:B. 香港的地產發展史:
b. 教會反對投機 和 對金錢的反感D. 小結
b. 實際生活的体驗:B. 社會文化: 財力定人勢, 炒風氣勢勁C. 哲學D. 小結
A. 心態分析B. 個人引渡: 八大原則(神的引渡)C. 小結
14. 香港宣教會恩錫堂的教會增長分析 (中文) [因為有教會內部資料,而且已經過時; 所要我決定不公開]
Theissen, Gerd. The Social Setting of Pauline Christianity. tr. by John H. Schutz. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1982.)
Theissen, Gerd. Sociology of Early Palestinian Christianity. tr. by John Bowden. (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1978.)
Theissen, Gerd. The Shadow of the Galilean Jesus: The quest of the historical Jesus in narrative form. tr. by John Bowden.
(Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987.)
18. 對路加福音及使徒行傳的 女性神學的入手法
Seim, Turid Karlsen. The Double Message: Patterns of Gender in Luke-Acts. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1994).
Corley, Kathleen E. Private Women, Public Meals: Social Conflict in the Synoptic Tradition. (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1993).