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Use of Greek in Daily Life (3)

Table of Content

  1. Greek Concepts / Philosophy:

  2. Historical Theology & Systematic Theology

  3. Exegesis & Bible Study

  4. Practice: Read Greek (easy text) : Letter opening comparison in Greek and Chinese.

Remainder: All the Greek fonts are in Symbol font or SPIonic font. If you still don't have it, please contact me.

  1. Greek Concepts / Philosophy:

  1. Film: What is the fifth element? Then what are the four elements?
  2. Flesh : Soma or Sarx (soma or sarx)
  3. Astronomy & Greek mythology
  4. Mythology: Venus as the beauty standard; naked ideal Vs pornography

  1. 2. Historical Theology & Systematic Theology

    a. Cults, Neo-platonism, Gnosticism & the rise of canon

    b. Trinity : ousia, homo-, homoi-

Reference: 楊錫鏘著原文與釋經

    3 .Exegesis: Distinctiveness of Greek Exegesis

  1. Greek words have different word meanings:
  2. Greek : sozo ( swzw< ), It may mean salvation of the soul, or physical healing.
  3. <A-1,Verb,4982,sozo> taken from Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, on Topic: Save, Saving
    "to save," is used (as with the noun soteria, "salvation")

  4. John 20:17 Jesus [17]耶穌說:「不要摸我,因我還沒有升上去見我的父。你往我弟兄那裡去,告訴他們說,我要升上去見我的父,也是你們的父,見我的神,也是你們的神。」 [17] Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God. It seems to be very strange! But the word “touch” can mean “take hold of”. (纏住不放). Mh/ mou a#ptou , [VMPM—YS] ( a#ptw BAGD p.102)
  5. The word used here is the middle form of a#ptw , which is a#ptomai . The parsing of the verb is present impervative middle. The active and middle form have different meanings. The middle form can mean touch and take hold of.

  1. Greek word meaning cannot be translated easily.
  2. 2 Cor. 9:8 [林後 9:8]
    1. 神能將各樣的恩惠多多的加給你們,使你們凡事常常充足,能多行各樣善事。
    2. And God is able to make all grace abound toward you; that ye, always having all sufficiency in all things, may abound to every good work: In Greek, all use (pas, paV). They are all related, in order to emphasize.
    3. dunatei~ de\ o( qeo\v pa~san xa/rin peirsseu~sai ei)v u(ma~v, i$na e)n panti\ pa/ntote pa~san au)ta/keian e!xontev peisseu/the ei)v pa~n e!rgon a)gaqo/n,
  3. The differences between Greek manuscripts.
  4. Special example: from 666 to 616. Rev. 13:18
    KJV: Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.

    Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for the number is that of a man; and his number is six hundred and sixty-six *.

    J'wde hJ sofiva ejstivn: oJ e~cwn nou'n yhfisavtw to;n ajriqmo;n tou' qhrivou, ajriqmo;ß ga;r ajnqrwvpou ejstivn: kai; oJ ajriqmo;ß aujtou' eJxakovsioi eJxhvkonta e&x.

    Note that the Greek has changed to de'ka (ten) [the right bottom; in manuscript C and other manuscripts], thus become 10+6 =16. Check the sheet named "Witnesses, Signs, Abbreviations in the Greek Text and Apparatus (26th revised Edition)". C contains "eapr" which represent four different contents; in contrast to D 06 manuscript which has only p [= Pauline Letters]. The right-most "V" means fifth Century. It is a Roman letter represents 5. The manuscript is dated to be copied in Century V.

    The original 666 is pointing to Nero Caesar only when it is counted in Hebrew; for the later Christians who will not know that the Greek is changed to 616 to indicate this. The Nero Caesar is 616 in Greek.

  5. The words are used differently in Greek, Chinese and English.
  6. Tense: English tense emphasizes the time: present, past and future. But the Greek tense emphasizes the aspect: point or continuous.
  7. Please refers to information on your textbook and my lecture notes. Deeper information on the tense comparison can be found in the intermediate Greek Grammar section. For example, Romans 6 given in the previous lecture.

    E.g. Romans 6: 1, 15 (verb: 仍在 1961 + noun: 罪中 266) 但在15(verb: 犯罪 264! 原書寫錯了! 但關鍵在tense. )

    6: 1 e)time&nwmen: present subjunctive active, 1st p. plural. (verb: remain) : May we continue to renain [Continuous]

    6:15 a(marth&dwmen : aorist subjunctive active, 1st p. plural. (verb: sin) : may we sin [Puntilinear; therefore occassionally.]

  8. Noun: number – Greek has plural and singular; but Chinese does not show them clearly.
    1. Dual: Besides, the Hebrews have dual too. But for NT and LXX Greek, the dual has disappeared. "The dual, which was already failing into disuse in the time of Homer, and which is seldom adhered to systematically in classical writers, has disappeared altogether." quoted from F. C. Conybeare and St. Gerorge Stock, Grammar of Septuagint Greek: With Selected Readings from the Septuagint According to the Text of Swete, p. 25. The dual ending is abandoned and replaced by plural form. For example, in Plat. Rep. 470B e)pi\ duoi~n tinoi~n diaforai~n (Note the dual ending) Contrast LXX - Gen. 40:2 e)pi\ toi~v dusi\n eu)nou/xoiv au)tou~ .
    2. Plural: Heb. 6:2 -各樣洗禮、按手之禮、死人復活,以及永遠審判各等教訓。Of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment. The baptisms ( baptismw~n ) are in plural form. It refers to other kinds of baptism too: the baptism of the Jews.

  9. Case:
    1. This is not found in Chinese, and less obviously in English. The Greek has unique form for different cases to show the relationship of the words to the sentence.
    2. John 3:2 [ 3:2]這人夜裡來見耶穌,說:「拉比,我們知道你是由神那裡來作師傅的;因為你所行的神蹟,若沒有神同在,無人能行。」
    3. The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him.
      1. “By night” (nuktos, nukto\v) is in genitive case (kind, by night) (he choose to come by night; it implies that he is afraid that others may know.),
      2. not dative (particular night) or
      3. accusative case (all night long). [Note: See Lesson 16, p. 64 in Textbook (Wenham).]

  10. The sentence and grammatical structures are different in Greek and English.
  11. 1) Subordinate clause: Especially participle.


  1. How should we treat Greek exegesis?

4) Practice: Read Greek (easy text) :

Letter opening comparison in Greek and Chinese. Read carefully and try to find the differences and explain why.

See Letter Opening : Part 1, Part 2.